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1-11-2017 Her Faith Told Her To Wait. Don't Touch If You Ain't Prayed. Full Free Maverick Movie. Duration: 1:25:34. Maverick Movies 356,144 views. 2-1-2018 Final The Rapture Full Christian Movie 2013 - Jesus Is Coming. Final The Rapture Full Length Christian Movie (2013. Jesus Is Coming. christian movie, end times movie, jesus is coming, rapture movie, bride of christ, don't be left behind, end of times, rapture. 6-6-2013 Everything you always wanted to know about the Rapture • Learn about the 7 Raptures in the Bible • Old and New Testament proof for the Rapture • Why, when, who and how the Rapture takes place • Complete instruction for those who miss the Rapture and are Left Behind.


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I don't know why, but this song is fire 🔥🔥🔥. Where is the freakin origianl video? i love it. Free stream the rapture song. Free stream the rapture cast. Christian beliefs Menu Background: The rapture is Christian belief that forms a major part of the current teaching and expectations of fundamentalist and other evangelical denominations. In its most popular current form, the doctrine involves Jesus Christ returning from Heaven towards earth. In violation of the law of gravity, saved individuals -- both dead and alive -- will rise up in the air and join Jesus in the sky: Needless to say, the above image is not of a past event. It is a simulation, with photographs of individuals superimposed on a picture of the sky. A very brief description of the rapture is found in the Bible -- 1 Thessalonians 4 -- and is supported in other passages. Unfortunately, the Bible is ambiguous about exactly when the rapture will occur. Most believers in the rapture suggest that it will happen just before the expected seven-year Tribulation -- a time of great suffering, instability, the devastating War of Armageddon, and the largest genocide that the world has ever seen. Some suggest that it will happen just after the Tribulation when Jesus finally returns to Earth. The doctrine of the "post-tribulation rapture" was taught by Christianity starting in the first century CE and was popular until the 19th century. It is still held by some Christians. It teaches that when Jesus Christ returns to earth after the tribulation, believers who are alive at the time will be changed into immortal glorified bodies. A relatively new competing belief promoting a "pre-tribulation rapture" was developed during the 19th century and has become a near universal belief among fundamentalist and other evangelical Christians. This belief has Jesus returning towards the Earth before the tribulation. Christian believers -- both dead and alive -- will rise in the air to meet him in the sky. It will occur without warning. Believers in the pre-tribulation rapture have eagerly anticipated the event since the 1840s and have never given up the hope that it will occur in their very near future or at least within their lifetime. Harold Camping, founder of Family Radio, once predicted that the Rapture would occur on 2011-MAY-21. It didn't. Sponsored link: Topics covered in this section: The following essays discuss the pre-tribulation rapture. This section is currently being edited to add information about the post-tribulation rapture Related essays on this web site: Copyright © 1998 to 2019 by Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance Latest update: 2019-DEC-26 Author: B. A. Robinson Sponsored link Web Page Translator: This page translator works on Firefox, Opera, Chrome, and Safari browsers only After translating, click on the "show original" button at the top of this page to restore page to English.

LOVE the hats. Free stream the rapture book. Free stream the rapture 2016. 1 Thessalonians 4:2, 16-18 KJV For ye know what commandments we gave you by the Lord Jesus. For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first: Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord. Wherefore comfort one another with these words. Free Stream The rupture amoureuse. An alternative theory is that the rapture has already happened, but not many qualified. Ooh that smarts! Not to be confused with Rapture from BioShock (a dystopian underwater city). “ ” The death of a Rapture preacher is doubly awkward. Because for Rapture preachers like Tim LaHaye, those passages have nothing to do with death, or with the resurrection of the dead and the life of the world to come. For LaHaye, et. al., those passages are all reinterpreted as the reassurance that Christians will escape death — that death will not apply in our case. Those verses, in their view, are not about death at all, but about the Rapture — about “Jesus coming back to get us before we die. ” To die before the Rapture, then, is to be consigned to the ash-heap along with all the other generations of Christians who weren’t special enough for Jesus to come back and get them. It means not making the cut as one of the special snowflake generation of Last Days Christians — the only generation who will live to see " Bible prophecy " fulfilled, and thus the only generation for whom most of the Bible has any real meaning or application. It means joining the dispensation of the dead. And it means doing so after a lifetime spent insisting that this would somehow never happen in your own special case. — Fred Clark, liberal evangelical pastor [1] The Rapture is an event in the eschatology of some strains of Protestantism accompanying the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. First, all dead True Christians™ are to be resurrected. Then all living True Christians™ are transformed into immortal bodies, and both groups rise up into the air to meet Jesus and watch the fireworks which are about to happen on the Earth below. Non-Christians and Christians who aren't True Christians™ (such as Roman Catholics and liberal Methodists like Hillary Clinton) have to suffer the horrible plagues of the seven year Great Tribulation (described in the Book of Revelation) as punishment. An urban legend states that airlines won't allow a True Christian™ pilot to fly with True Christian™ co-pilot (in case NOBODY IS LEFT TO FLY THE PLANE AAAH), but instead require a non-Rapturable co-pilot. [2] Although originally invented in Europe, its modern popularity is an American phenomenon. It is absent from other strains of Protestantism such as Anglicanism, Lutheranism or Calvinism, and likewise unknown outside Protestanism, such as in Catholicism or Eastern Orthodoxy. The Rapture features prominently in several works of fiction, including the Left Behind series (which also features the idiotic pilot scenario described above), and films including the Russell Doughten production A Thief in the Night. Invention [ edit] “ ” With the deadly heresies entertained and taught by the Plymouth Brethren, in relation to some of the most momentous of all the doctrines of the gospel, and to which I have adverted at some length, I feel assured that my readers will not be surprised at any other views, however unscriptual and pernicious they may be, which the Darbyites have embraced and zealously seek to propagate. — James Grant writing in 1875 [3] While the seeds for the notion of a rapture were planted back in 1590 by the Catholic Jesuit Francisco Ribera, who suggested most the events described in the Book of Revelation would happen in the future ( Futurism) [note 1], and expanded later in Puritan circles this doctrine was invented by John Nelson Darby (a big cheese among the original Plymouth Brethren and the founder of the Exclusive Brethren) and was popularised as dispensationalism. Darby really, really wanted the sadistic plot devices in the Book of Revelation to be true, but preferably without the bit where " the righteous " suffer as well, so he seized upon this verse as ass cover his justification. Backing in scripture [ edit] The whole thing is based on a tiny snippet from First Thessalonians, 4:16-17: “ ” 16 For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first. “ ” 17 Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord. That's literally the entirety of biblical justification behind all this. You're welcome. Variations [ edit] Most Evangelicals are "Pre-trib". That means they believe the Rapture is the very next event on the prophetic calendar, and they will be raptured out to miss the entire Tribulation. Some Evangelicals are "Pre-wrath" which means they have to suffer the first three and one-half years of the Tribulation, but all those plagues will be man-made (Democratic US President, worldwide economic downturn, gun control, socialist health care, taxes raised to 39% on top earners, etc. ) and they are mild compared to the divine wrath of the last three and one-half years. A few Evangelicals are "Post-trib", but they aren't True Christians™ so they won't get beamed out. Previous Raptures [ edit] See also: List of predictions of the end of the world “ ”.. I'm trying to say is, who has time to go round picking people out and popping them in the air to sneer at the people dying of radiation sickness on the parched and burning earth below them? If that's your idea of a morally acceptable time, I might add. —Aziraphale, Good Omens [4] According to varying Christian sects, the Rapture should have already happened about ten times in the last two hundred years. 1843, March 21st - Baptist preacher William Miller predicted Christ would return on this date for a year, before revising his well-researched Rapture theory to 1844, October 22nd. When Jesus didn't appear on that day, several people were bitterly disappointed. [5] 1981 - a prediction from pastor Chuck Smith in Future Survival, 1978. [6] 1988, September 11th-13th - a prediction from the late Evangelical Edgar C. Whisenant in 88 Reasons Why the Rapture Will Be in 1988, 1987. 1989 - another prediction from Edgar C. Whisenant in The Final Shout: Rapture Report 1989. Upset that the world didn't end when he first (or second) predicted, Whisenant continued to predict the end of the world in 1992 and 1995, among other years. 1992, October 28th - prediction from Korean group Mission for the Coming Days. [7] 1993 - multiple predictions put 1993 as the Rapture date as seven years before the millennium to allow for the seven years of Tribulation before the Second Coming in 2000. 1994, June 9th - a prediction from Christ Church pastor John Hinkle. 1994, September 6th - a prediction from radio evangelist Harold Camping. 1994 was apparently not a good year for Rapture believers. 1996 - The Church of the SubGenius states that the Rapture occured in 1996, but that the only person in the USA who made the cut was one old beet farmer in Iowa, and nobody even noticed he was missing for three months. 2011, May 21st - a prediction again from radio evangelist Harold Camping after reviewing his botched former prediction. [8] 2011, October 21st - Harold Camping again. Nothing happened, as with the previous two times, and he still won't suck it up and admit he was wrong. At the time of writing, the Rapture has not yet occurred. [ citation NOT needed] Note that the past predictions of Jehovah's Witnesses are not here, since those refer to the Armageddon. JWs do not believe in the Rapture. [9] Rapture services [ edit] “ ” Oh no, it's the Rapture! Quick, Marge, get Bart out of the house before God comes! —Homer Simpson For the convenience of those who have been Raptured, the website You've Been Left Behind offers document storage and email sending services back on Earth after their disappearance to Heaven. "Imagine how taken back [sic] [your friends and relatives] will be by the millions of missing Christians and devastation at the Rapture. They will know it was true and that they have blown it. " The friends and relatives who are left to cope with Beelzebub and the Fires of Hades will be even more taken aback to receive emails, good wishes and instructions for the distribution of estates, etc. from those Beyond. All this for the princely sum of $40 a year, which is a paltry price to pay for confirmation of one's Utter Stupidity. Pets will not be retrieved by that Rapture either, and as such, confirmed atheists will need to handle your pets once the rapture comes. These services can be handled by Eternal Earthbound Pets [note 2] in the US or Post Rapture Pet Care in the UK. Appplying for such care before the rapture occurs will ensure that you are less bound to earthly events and will make sure that you can be accepted into heaven more quickly. See, those pesky atheists do have a use! An often overlooked consequence of the Rapture would be the instantaneous orphaning of possibly millions of babies, infants, and children. Despite what Christians believe about an 'age of accountability', the concept is not in the Bible. All babies are atheist, and there is now a service that promises to rescue these babies in the event of Rapture. [10] Services offered include using whatever force necessary to rescue such children, prevent them from receiving any sort of Mark of the Beast, and of course ensuring their spiritual salvation too. This business is also run by pesky atheists. Seriously [ edit] Who cares about roadkill when I'm with Jesus? “ ” Redeem the time you have here and make the most of it, don’t just waste it awaiting a Rapture that will never come. Some fundamentalist Christians believe that the rapture will actually happen, literally, and all good Christians will be taken to Heaven while the heavens rejoice. The rest will be left behind to face the Devil and his tribulations. The bad people will remain on Earth because only Christians are good and good Christians will be guess where, in Heaven. See Revelation for more religious fear tactics. So what is the fuckin' holdup? People have been talking about this on and off for nigh on two millennia. Let's go already. Or did it happen already and nobody made the cut? Those who absolutely cannot wait for the Rapture, and want to escape right now, are cordially invited to Go Galt. See also [ edit] End times Dispensationalism Rapture Ready External links [ edit] Slacktivist's Left Behind Archive An "Atheist" during the "Rapture" (WARNING--contains exceptionally mixed messages. ) THE RAPTURE and START of WORLD WAR III – BY: February 1st 2011! This website originally expected the rapture in 2008, then revised their predictions when that didn't happen (to the 21st of September 2009), then revised their prediction again when the new date didn't pan out, then revised it a third time to September 2010, then a fourth to October 2010. They settled on December 2010 for a while, but now that that date has passed they've revised it yet again to the end of January 2011. Hey, say what you will about this guy, he's certainly determined. Oh, wait, now he's revised it yet another time - now it's supposedly going to be the end of Rosh Hashanah, 2011 (which has since come and gone). Holy crap, man, why can't you just pick a date and stick with it? Somewhat humorously, he appears to be either too lazy to update the rest of the site or simply does not realize that he has not updated it, and virtually all of the site's arguments are still constructed around the original 2008 prediction, with several sections of the site still giving the original prediction in its entirety despite the fact that, by the original prediction, over half of the 'Tribulation' would already be over by now. (The site ceased to exist in 2011 when AT&T stopped hosting old Prodigy pages. ) Notes [ edit] ↑ Which is quite ironic, knowing how so much hated is the Catholic Church among Protestant Fundies. ↑ Closed in 2012 due to lack of interest. References [ edit].

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Free stream the rapture live. Free stream the rapture game. Brilliant song for a useless video (or is it the contrary. How come. Punk is truely dead when comments talk about vocals here. Free stream the rapture video. The Rapture C hristians use the word " Rapture " to refer to the coming of Christ for His followers. We have a firm basis for this belief in the Word of God. John 14:1-3 Do not let your hearts be troubled. Exercise faith in God, exercise faith also in me. In the house of my Father there are MANY ABODES. Otherwise, I would have told you, because I am going my way to prepare a place for you. Also, if I go my way and PREPARE A PLACE FOR YOU, I am coming again and will receive you home to myself, that where I am you also may be. The scripture in John 14 tells us the rapture will not occur until Jesus comes back. Notice His words "I am coming again and will receive you home to myself. " Notice that the rapture to these many abodes will happen at the beginning of the 2nd coming of Christ. This scripture is our basis for believing that Christ is preparing new "abodes" where He will take us during the rapture. Please understand that the 2 nd coming of Christ consists of two events: FIRST He raptures us (the saints) to paradise. This is where Christ is. Then He destroys the evil people left on this earth. SECOND He returns with us (the saints) to fight in the Battle of Armageddon. After Christ wins, He stays for the millennium. In the 1 st step, Christ takes us to the new abodes, but first He needs to cast the devil out of heaven. The preparation that Christ was referring to had to do with casting the devil and his angels out of heaven before He could take us there. The battle between Michael and Satan began soon after Christ ascended to heaven. See Woman with 12 Stars. 2 Peter 3:13 But according to His promise we are looking for new heavens and a new earth, in which righteousness dwells. The reason that righteousness dwells in the new heavens and new earth is that Satan is no longer there. When the war in heaven is won, Christ can return to gather us in the rapture. John 14:27-28 � do not let your hearts be troubled nor let them shrink for fear. You heard that I said to you, I am going away and I am coming to you The coming of Christ to rapture / rescue His followers is similar to the days of Noah and the days of Lot. Luke 17:26-31 �. just as it occurred in the days of Noah, so it will be also in the days of the Son of man. They were eating, they were drinking, they were marrying, they were being given in marriage, until that day when Noah entered into the ark and the flood arrived and DESTROYED THEM ALL. Likewise just as it occurred in the days of Lot., they were eating, they were drinking, they were buying, they were selling, they were planting, �but on the day that Lot came out of Sodom it rained fire and sulfur from heaven and DESTROYED THEM ALL. The same way it will be on that day when the son of man is to be revealed. On that day let the person that is on the house top but whose valuable things [jewels] are in the house not come down to pick these up Luke 17:32 and the person out in the field, let him likewise not return to the things behind� Luke 17:34 in that night two will be in one bed, the one will be taken along but the other will be abandoned Matthew 24:40 Then will two men be in the field: one will be taken away, and one LEFT [BEHIND]. Luke 17:36 Two men shall be in the field, the one shall be taken and the other left. Matthew 24:41-42 Two shall be grinding at the mill; the one shall be taken, and the other left. Watch therefore: for ye know not what hour your Lord does come These Words Imply the Following: 1. It will occur without previous notice to the bulk of humanity. 2. Not everyone will be raptured from the same family. 3. The ones taken will be in physical form, not spiritual form. 4. They will have a very short time to leave. 5. People will be taken to a place of refuge that is referred to as the new abodes God is preparing. 6. They will continue to have children in the new place (spirits do not reproduce). 7. The ones left behind will suffer DESTRUCTION similar to what happened in the days of Noah. Christ also refers to this time with these words: Re 3:3 I will come upon you as a thief. See our new file - Thief in the Night. Matthew 24:43-44 But know this, that if the owner of the house had known in what watch the thief would come, he would have watched, and would not have suffered his house to be dug through. Therefore be ye also ready for in such an hour as ye think not the Son of man cometh. Not only does a thief come at a time when he is not expected, he comes to rob. What is Christ robbing? He will be robbing or abducting part of humanity, and He will be taking them somewhere else. Do we have evidence of this sort of thing happening before in the history of man? The Bible gives us 3 examples: First Example Hebrews 11:5 By faith Enoch was taken up so that he would not see death; AND HE WAS NOT FOUND BECAUSE GOD TOOK HIM UP; for he obtained the witness that before his being taken up he was pleasing to God. So, Enoch was taken to another place away from Earth. Second Example Elijah was taken to heaven in a whirlwind as seen by the prophet Elisha. 2Kings 2:11 And it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, and parted them both asunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven. Elijah was seen leaving in physical human form; he did not suddenly "disappear" as some people think the rapture will be. Third Example Paul tells us of a man he knew who was taken to paradise. 2Co 12:2-4 I knew a man in Christ above fourteen years ago, (whether in the body, I cannot tell; or whether out of the body, I cannot tell: God knoweth;) such an one caught up to the THIRD heaven. And I knew such a man, (whether in the body, or out of the body, I cannot tell: God knoweth;) How that he was caught up into PARADISE, and heard unspeakable words, which it is not lawful for a man to utter. From the above quote, we understand that PARADISE is referred to by "the THIRD heaven. " Which are the other heavens? 1 st heaven is the sky where birds fly and there are clouds. Daniel 5:21.. body was wet with the dew of heaven... 2 nd heaven is outer space, also referred to as the outermost parts of heaven. Deuteronomy 30:4 If any of you shall be driven out to the outmost parts of heaven, from there will the LORD your God gather you, and from there will he bring you. 3 rd heaven is other planets and galaxies. Paul's friend was taken to the THIRD heaven which Paul calls PARADISE. God lives in a higher realm called the heaven of heavens. For more on this topic, read Heaven. Deuteronomy 10:14 Behold, the heaven and the heaven of heavens [is] the LORD'S thy God, the earth [also], with all that therein [is]. 1 Kings 8:27 But will God indeed dwell on the earth? behold, the heaven and heaven of heavens cannot contain you; how much less this house that I have built? In the same way that God took Enoch, Elijah, and Paul's friend to paradise, Jesus will also take us to paradise, when He returns to Earth for the rapture. God will not leave us on Earth to be destroyed. He will rapture us, much like He rescued Israel from Egypt. See Second Exodus. We will be taken in human form, not in spirit form. Please do not confuse the rapture with the resurrection. The First Resurrection does not occur till after the Seven Trumpets and seven bowls of wrath have been fulfilled, as explained in the Revelation Timeline. At the end of the Bowls of Wrath, the Battle of Armageddon occurs, and Christ returns to earth with His saints to establish His Millennial kingdom. We believe the word of God and are waiting for Christ's return to rapture His people. Return to Main Menu.

Free stream the rapture full. Free stream the rapture series. Free stream the rapture movies. Dude you have period blood on your leg. One in the bed One at the mill One in the field Christian eschatology Eschatological views Contrasting beliefs Historicism ( Interpretations of Revelation) Futurism Preterism Idealism Dispensationalism The Millennium Amillennialism Postmillennialism Premillennialism Prewrath Rapture Posttribulation Rapture Biblical texts Daniel Seventy Weeks Synoptic Gospels Olivet Discourse Mark 13 Matthew 24 Sheep and Goats Pauline Epistles 2 Thessalonians Johannine literature Revelation (Events) Pseudepigrapha 1 Enoch 2 Esdras Key terms Abomination of desolation Antichrist Armageddon The Beast False prophet Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse Gog and Magog Great Apostasy Great Tribulation Katechon Kingdom of God Lake of fire Last Judgment Man of sin New Heaven and New Earth New Jerusalem Number of the Beast Rapture Resurrection of the dead Second Coming Seven bowls Seven seals Son of perdition Two witnesses War in Heaven Whore of Babylon World to come Christianity portal v t e The rapture is an eschatological concept of certain Christians, particularly within branches of American evangelicalism, consisting of an end-time event when all Christian believers who are alive, along with resurrected believers, will rise "in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air. " [1] In Paul the Apostle 's First Epistle to the Thessalonians in the Bible, he uses the Greek word harpazo ( Ancient Greek: ἁρπάζω), meaning "to snatch away" or "to seize, " and explains that believers in Jesus Christ will be snatched away from earth into the air. [2] The term is most frequently used among conservative Christian theologians in the United States. [3] Rapture has also been used for a mystical union with God or for eternal life in Heaven. [4] Differing viewpoints exist about the exact timing of the rapture and whether Christ's return will occur in one event or two. Pretribulationism distinguishes the rapture from the second coming of Jesus Christ to earth, mentioned in the Gospel of Matthew, 2 Thessalonians, and Revelation. This view holds that the rapture will precede the seven-year Tribulation, which will culminate in Christ's second coming and be followed by a thousand-year Messianic Kingdom. [5] [6] Adherents of this perspective are referred to as premillenial dispensationalists. This theory grew out of the translations of the Bible that John Nelson Darby analyzed in 1833. It was promulgated by the cult followers of Darbyism, a doctrine that has been deemed heretical by most mainstream Christians. [7] [8] Pretribulationism is the most widely held view in America today, although this view is disputed within evangelicalism. [9] There are also differing views among Christians regarding the aerial gathering described in 1 Thessalonians 4. The majority of broadly Christian and mainline churches do not subscribe to pretribulational views. Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Anglicans, Lutherans, Presbyterians, United Methodists, [10] the United Church of Christ, and most Reformed Christians do not generally use rapture as a specific theological term, nor do they generally subscribe to the premillennial dispensational views associated with its use. Instead these groups typically interpret rapture in the sense of the elect gathering with Christ in Heaven after His second coming [11] [12] [13] and reject the idea that a large segment of humanity will be left behind on earth for an extended tribulation period after the events of 1 Thessalonians 4:17. [14] Etymology [ edit] Rapture is derived from Middle French rapture, via the Medieval Latin raptura ("seizure, kidnapping"), which derives from the Latin raptus ("a carrying off"). [15] Greek [ edit] The Koine Greek of 1 Thessalonians 4:17 uses the verb form ἁρπαγησόμεθα ( harpagisometha), which means "we shall be caught up" or "taken away, " with the connotation that this is a sudden event. The dictionary form of this Greek verb is harpazō ( ἁρπάζω). [16] This use is also seen in such texts as Acts 8:39, 2 Corinthians 12:2-4, and Revelation 12:5. Latin [ edit] The Latin Vulgate translates the Greek ἁρπαγησόμεθα as rapiemur [17] meaning "we are caught up" or "we are taken away" from the Latin verb rapio meaning "to catch up" or "take away". [18] English Bible translations [ edit] English versions of the Bible have expressed the concept of rapiemur in various ways: The Wycliffe Bible (1395), translated from the Latin Vulgate, uses "rushed". [19] The Tyndale New Testament (1525), the Bishop's Bible (1568), the Geneva Bible (1587) and the King James Version (1611) use "caught up". [20] This is carried over to the American Standard Version (1901) and the Revised Standard Version (1946, 1952). The online NET Bible (1995-2005) translates the Greek of 1 Thessalonians 4:17 [21] using the phrase "suddenly caught up" with the footnote: "Or 'snatched up. ' The Greek verb ἁρπάζω implies that the action is quick or forceful, so the translation supplied the adverb 'suddenly' to make this implicit notion clear. " Doctrinal position [ edit] The Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, [22] the Anglican Communion, Lutheranism and Protestant Calvinist denominations have no tradition of a preliminary return of Christ. The Orthodox Church, for example, rejects a preliminary return because it depends on a premillennial interpretation of prophetic Scriptures, favoring amillennial or postmillennial fashion. [23] Baptists, [24] Bible churches, [25] Brethren churches, [26] Pentecostals, [27] non-denominational evangelicals, and various other evangelical groups typically adhere to the pretribulational Rapture. [28] As dispensationalism began to rise in America during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, pretribulationism became common among many Episcopalians, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians. Today, Episcopalians, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians rarely hold to pretribulationism. Views [ edit] Tenets [ edit] Those who are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord shall not precede those who are dead ( 1 Thessalonians 4:15). The dead in Christ will resurrect first ( 1 Thessalonians 4:16). The living and the resurrected dead will be caught up together in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air ( 1 Thessalonians 4:17). The rapture will occur as a component of the parousia: "those who are alive and remain unto the coming (παρουσία) of the Lord, shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air" ( 1 Thessalonians 4:15-17). The meeting with the Lord will be permanent: "And so shall we ever be with the Lord" ( 1 Thessalonians 4:17). One or two events [ edit] Most premillennialists distinguish the Rapture and the Second Coming as separate events. Some dispensational premillennialists (including many evangelicals) hold the return of Christ to be two distinct events (i. e., Christ's second coming in two stages). According to this view, 1 Thessalonians 4:15–17 is a description of a preliminary event to the return described in Matthew 24:29–31. Although both describe a coming of Jesus, these are seen to be different events. The first event is a coming where the saved are to be 'caught up, ' whence the term "rapture" is taken. The second event is described as the second coming. The majority of dispensationalists hold that the first event precedes the period of tribulation, even if not immediately (see chart for additional dispensationalist timing views). [29] Dispensationalists distinguish these events as a result of own literal [30] [31] understanding of Paul's words. [32] Amillennialists deny the interpretation of a literal thousand-year earthly rule of Christ. There is considerable overlap in the beliefs of amillennialists (including most Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Anglicans, and Lutherans), postmillennialists (including Presbyterians), and historic premillennialists (including some Calvinistic Baptists) with those who hold that the return of Christ will be a single, public event. Some proponents believe the doctrine of amillennialism originated with Alexandrian scholars such as Clement and Origen [33] and later became Catholic dogma through Augustine. [34] Destination [ edit] Dispensationalists see the immediate destination of the raptured Christians as being Heaven. Roman Catholic commentators, such as Walter Drum (1912), identify the destination of the 1 Thessalonians 4:17 gathering as Heaven. [35] While Anglicans have many views, some Anglican commentators, such as N. T. Wright, identify the destination as a specific place on Earth. [36] [37] This interpretation may sometimes be connected to Christian environmentalist concerns. [38] Views of eschatological timing [ edit] There are numerous views regarding the timing of the Rapture. Some maintain that Matthew 24:37–40 refers to the Rapture, pointing out similarities between the two texts, indicating that the Rapture will occur at the parousia of the Lord. Others point out that neither church nor rapture occur in Matthew 24 and there are significant differences between Matthew 24:37–40 and 1 Thessalonians 4:13–18. As a result, these two texts receive the overwhelming focus within discussions about the Rapture's timing. The two texts are as follows: 1 Thessalonians 4:15-17 ASV Matthew 24:37-40 ASV 15 According to the Lord’s word, we tell you that we who are still alive, who are left until the coming of the Lord (παρουσίαν parousia), [39] will certainly not precede those who have fallen asleep. 16 For the Lord himself will come down from heaven, with a loud command, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet call of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. 17 After that, we who are still alive and are left will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And so we will be with the Lord forever. 37 And as were the days of Noah, so shall be the coming (παρουσία parousia) [40] of the Son of man. 38 For as in those days which were before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark, 39 and they knew not until the flood came, and took them all away; so shall be the coming (παρουσία parousia) [41] of the Son of man. 40 Then shall two men be in the field; one is taken, and one is left. Comparison of Christian millennial interpretations, including premillennialist, postmillennialist, and amillennialist viewpoints Comparison of differing viewpoints amongst premillennialists about timing of tribulation. In the amillennial and postmillennial views there are no distinctions in the timing of the Rapture. These views regard that the Rapture, as it is described in 1 Thessalonians 4:15-17, will be identical to the Second Coming of Jesus as described in Matthew 24:29-31 after the spiritual/symbolic millennium. In the premillennial view, the Rapture will be before a literal, earthly millennium. Within premillennialism, the pretribulation position distinguishes between the Rapture and the Second Coming as two different events. There are also other positions within premillennialism that differ with regard to the timing of the Rapture. [42] Premillenialist views [ edit] In the earliest days of the church, chiliastic teaching (i. e., early premillennialism) was the dominant view. [43] Eusebius wrote, "To these [written accounts] belong his [ Papias of Hierapolis] statement that there will be a period of some thousand years after the resurrection of the dead, and that the kingdom of Christ will be set up in material form on this very earth... But it was due to him that so many of the Church Fathers after him adopted a like opinion, urging in their own support the antiquity of the man; as for instance Irenaeus and any one else that may have proclaimed similar views. " [44] Schaff further confirms this by stating, "The most striking point in the eschatology of the ante-Nicene age is the prominent chiliasm, or millennarianism, that is the belief of a visible reign of Christ in glory on earth with the risen saints for a thousand years, before the general resurrection and judgment. " [45] Over time, however, a clash surfaced between what are known as the Syrian and Alexandrian schools. [46] The early church was primarily futurist —the idea that most of Revelation is about the imminent future rather than about the early years of the church—in their eschatology and held to an earthly thousand-year reign of Christ. However, an approach to interpretation developed in Alexandria, Egypt, which proposed a deeper spiritual meaning to the text. The Alexandrian school's roots can be traced back to the influence of Philo, a Hellenized Jew who sought to reconcile God's veracity with what he thought were errors in the Tanakh. [47] Alexandrian theologians viewed the Millennium as a symbolic reign of Christ from Heaven. [48] Through the influence of Origen and Augustine—students of the Alexandrian school—allegorical interpretation rose to prominence, and its eschatology became the majority view for more than a thousand years. [49] As a reaction to the rise of allegorical interpretation came the Syrian school (or school of Antioch). [50] The Syrian school insisted on a literal hermeneutic. [51] Although a literal hermeneutic logically leads to Millenniarianism, the Syrian school did little to counter the Alexandrian's symbolic Millennium. [52] It was not until the twelfth century that futurism began to resurface. Joachim of Fiore (1130–1202) wrote a commentary on Revelation and insisted that the end was near and taught that God would restore the earth, the Jews would be converted, and the Millennium would take place on earth. [53] His teaching influenced much of Europe. Though the Roman Catholic Church does not generally regard Biblical prophecy in texts such as Daniel and Revelation as strictly future-based (when viewed from the standpoint of our present time), in 1590 Francisco Ribera, a Catholic Jesuit, taught futurism. [54] He also taught that a gathering-of-the-elect event (similar to what is now called the rapture) would happen 45 days before the end of a 3. 5-year tribulation. The concept of the rapture, in connection with premillennialism, was expressed by the 17th-century American Puritans Increase and Cotton Mather. They held to the idea that believers would be caught up in the air, followed by judgments on earth, and then the millennium. [55] [56] Other 17th-century expressions of the rapture are found in the works of: Robert Maton, Nathaniel Holmes, John Browne, Thomas Vincent, Henry Danvers, and William Sherwin. [57] The term rapture was used by Philip Doddridge [58] and John Gill [59] in their New Testament commentaries, with the idea that believers would be caught up prior to judgment on earth and Jesus' second coming. An 1828 edition of Matthew Henry 's An Exposition of the Old and New Testament uses the word "rapture" in explicating 1 Thessalonians 4:17. [60] Dr. Samuel Prideaux Tregelles (1813-1875), a prominent English theologian and biblical scholar, wrote a pamphlet in 1866 tracing the concept of the rapture through the works of John Darby back to Edward Irving. [61] Although not using the term "rapture", the idea was more fully developed by Edward Irving (1792–1834). In 1825, [62] Irving directed his attention to the study of prophecy and eventually accepted the one-man Antichrist idea of James Henthorn Todd, Samuel Roffey Maitland, Robert Bellarmine, and Francisco Ribera, yet he went a step further. Irving began to teach the idea of a two-phase return of Christ, the first phase being a secret rapture prior to the rise of the Antichrist. Edward Miller described Irving's teaching like this: "There are three gatherings: – First, of the first-fruits of the harvest, the wise virgins who follow the Lamb whithersoever He goeth; next, the abundant harvest gathered afterwards by God; and lastly, the assembling of the wicked for punishment. " [63] Pre-tribulational premillennialism [ edit] Pretribulationism traces its roots in the post-apostolic era as far back as The Shepherd of Hermas (ca. A. D. 140), which alludes to the idea that believers in Christ will not suffer the tribulation, suggesting a possible pretribulation view. [64] Other antecedents of pretribulationism can be found in The Apocalypse of Elijah, The Apocalypse of Pseudo-Ephraem, and The History of Brother Dolcino which present clear, early forms of pretribulationism though less refined. [65] Modern pretribulationism gained rise in the seventeenth century with the Puritan preachers Increase Mather and Cotton Mather. It was popularized extensively in the 1830s by John Nelson Darby [66] [67] and the Plymouth Brethren [68] and was further promoted in the United States through the wide circulation of the Scofield Reference Bible in the early 20th century. [69] The pretribulation position advocates that the rapture will occur before the beginning of a seven-year tribulation period, while the second coming will occur at the end of it. Pre-tribulationists often describe the rapture as Jesus coming for the church and the second coming as Jesus coming with the church. Pre-tribulation educators and preachers include Jimmy Swaggart, J. Dwight Pentecost, Tim LaHaye, J. Vernon McGee, Perry Stone, Chuck Smith, Hal Lindsey, Jack Van Impe, Chuck Missler, Grant Jeffrey, Thomas Ice, David Jeremiah, John F. MacArthur, and John Hagee. [70] While many pre-tribulationists are also dispensationalists, not all pre-tribulationists are dispensationalists. [71] John Nelson Darby first proposed and popularized the pre-tribulation rapture in 1827. [72] This view was accepted among many other Plymouth Brethren movements in England. Darby and other prominent Brethren were part of the Brethren movement which impacted American Christianity, especially with movements and teachings associated with Christian eschatology and fundamentalism, primarily through their writings. Influences included the Bible Conference Movement, starting in 1878 with the Niagara Bible Conference. These conferences, which were initially inclusive of historicist and futurist premillennialism, led to an increasing acceptance of futurist premillennial views and the pre-tribulation rapture especially among Presbyterian, Baptist, and Congregational members. [73] Popular books also contributed to acceptance of the pre-tribulation rapture, including William E. Blackstone 's book Jesus is Coming, published in 1878, [74] which sold more than 1. 3 million copies, and the Scofield Reference Bible, published in 1909 and 1919 and revised in 1967. [75] Some pretribulation proponents, such as Grant Jeffrey, [76] maintain that the earliest known extra-Biblical reference to the pretribulation rapture is from a 7th-century tract known as the Apocalypse of Pseudo-Ephraem the Syrian. Different authors have proposed several different versions of the Ephraem text as authentic and there are differing opinions as to whether it supports belief in a pretribulation rapture. [77] [78] One version of the text reads, "For all the saints and Elect of God are gathered, prior to the tribulation that is to come, and are taken to the Lord lest they see the confusion that is to overwhelm the world because of our sins. " [79] [80] In addition, The Apocalypse of Elijah and The History of Brother Dolcino both state that believers will be removed prior to the Tribulation. There exists at least one 18th-century and two 19th-century pretribulation references: in an essay published in 1788 in Philadelphia by the Baptist Morgan Edwards which articulated the concept of a pretribulation rapture, [81] in the writings of Catholic priest Manuel Lacunza in 1812, [82] and by John Nelson Darby in 1827. Manuel Lacunza (1731–1801), a Jesuit priest (under the pseudonym Juan Josafat Ben Ezra), wrote an apocalyptic work entitled La venida del Mesías en gloria y majestad ( The Coming of the Messiah in Glory and Majesty). The book appeared first in 1811, 10 years after his death. In 1827, it was translated into English by the Scottish minister Edward Irving. [ citation needed] The rise in belief in the pre-tribulation rapture is often wrongly attributed to a 15-year-old Scottish-Irish girl named Margaret McDonald who was of the first to receive a spiritual baptism under a Pentecostal awakening in Scotland. In 1830, she supposedly had a vision of the end times which describes a post-tribulation view of the rapture that was first published in 1840. It was published again in 1861, but two important passages demonstrating a post-tribulation view were removed to encourage confusion concerning the timing of the rapture. The two removed segments were, "This is the fiery trial which is to try us. - It will be for the purging and purifying of the real members of the body of Jesus" and "The trial of the Church is from Antichrist. It is by being filled with the Spirit that we shall be kept". [83] [84] During the 1970s, belief in the rapture became popular in wider circles, in part because of the books of Hal Lindsey, including The Late Great Planet Earth, which has reportedly sold between 15 million and 35 million copies, and the movie A Thief in the Night, which based its title on the scriptural reference 1 Thessalonians 5:2. Lindsey proclaimed that the rapture was imminent, based on world conditions at the time. In 1995, the doctrine of the pre-tribulation rapture was further popularized by Tim LaHaye 's Left Behind series of books, which sold tens of millions of copies [85] and was made into several movies and four real-time strategy video games. Mid-tribulational premillennialism [ edit] The mid-tribulation position espouses that the rapture will occur at some point in the middle of what is popularly called the tribulation period, or during Daniel's 70th Week. The tribulation is typically divided into two periods of 3. 5 years each. Mid-tribulationists hold that the saints will go through the first period (Beginning of Travail), but will be raptured into Heaven before the severe outpouring of God's wrath in the second half of what is popularly called the great tribulation. Mid-tribulationists appeal to Daniel 7:25 which says the saints will be given over to tribulation for "time, times, and half a time, " - interpreted to mean 3. 5 years. At the halfway point of the tribulation, the Antichrist will commit the "abomination of desolation" by desecrating the Jerusalem temple. Mid-tribulationist teachers include Harold Ockenga, James O. Buswell (a reformed, Calvinistic Presbyterian), and Norman Harrison. [86] This position is a minority view among premillennialists. [87] Prewrath premillennialism [ edit] The prewrath rapture view also places the rapture at some point during the tribulation period before the second coming. This view holds that the tribulation of the church begins toward the latter part of a seven-year period, being Daniel's 70th week, when the Antichrist is revealed in the temple. This latter half of a seven-year period [i. e. 3 1/2 years] is defined as the great tribulation, although the exact duration is not known. References from Matthew 24, Mark 13, and Luke 21 are used as evidence that this tribulation will be cut short by the coming of Christ to deliver the righteous by means of the rapture, which will occur after specific events in Revelation, in particular after the sixth seal is opened and the sun is darkened and the moon is turned to blood. [88] However, by this point many Christians will have been slaughtered as martyrs by the Antichrist. After the rapture will come God's seventh-seal wrath of trumpets and bowls (a. k. a. "the Day of the Lord"). The Day of the Lord's wrath against the ungodly will follow for the remainder of seven years. [89] [90] Partial pre-tribulation premillennialism [ edit] The partial, conditional or selective rapture theory holds that all obedient Christians will be raptured before the great tribulation depending on ones personal fellowship (or closeness) between she or he and God, which is not to be confused with the relationship between the same and God (which is believer, regardless of fellowship. ) [91] [92] Therefore, it is believed by some that the rapture of a believer is determined by the timing of his conversion before the great tribulation. Other proponents of this theory hold that only those who are faithful in their relationship with God (having true fellowship with Him) will be raptured, and the rest resurrected during the great tribulation, between the 5th and 6th seals of Revelation, having lost their lives during. [93] Still others hold the rest will either be raptured during the tribulation or at its end. As stated by Ira David (a proponent of this view): “The saints will be raptured in groups during the tribulation as they are prepared to go. ” [94] Some notable proponents of this theory are G. H. Lang, Robert Chapman, G. Pember, Robert Govett, D. M. Panton, Watchman Nee, Ira E. David, J. Seiss, Hudson Taylor, Anthony Norris Groves, John Wilkinson, G. Campbell Morgan, Otto Stockmayer and Rev. J. W. (Chip) White, Jr. Post-tribulational premillennialism [ edit] In the post-tribulation premillennial position, the rapture would be identical to the second coming of Jesus or as a meeting in the air with Jesus that immediately precedes his return to the Earth before a literal millennium. The post-tribulation position places the rapture at the end of the tribulation period. Post-tribulation writers define the tribulation period in a generic sense as the entire present age, or in a specific sense of a period of time preceding the second coming of Christ. [95] The emphasis in this view is that the church will undergo the tribulation. [96] Matthew 24:29–31 - " Immediately after the Tribulation of those shall gather together his elect... " - is cited as a foundational scripture for this view. Post-tribulationists perceive the rapture as occurring simultaneously with the second coming of Christ. Upon Jesus' return, believers will meet him in the air and will then accompany him in his return to the Earth. In the Epistles of Paul, most notably in 1 Thessalonians 4:16-17 ("the dead in Christ shall rise first") and 1 Corinthians 15:51-52, a trumpet is described as blowing at the end of the tribulation to herald the return of Christ; Revelation 11:15 further supports this view. Moreover, after chapters 6–19, and after 20:1-3 when Satan is bound, Revelation 20:4-6 says, "and they lived, and reigned with Christ a thousand years. But the rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection. " Authors and teachers who support the post-tribulational view include Pat Robertson, Walter R. Martin, John Piper, George E. Ladd, [97] Robert H. Gundry, [98] and Douglas Moo. Non-premillennialist views [ edit] Postmillennialism [ edit] In the postmillennialist view the millennium is seen as an indefinitely long time thus precluding literal interpretation of a thousand-year period. According to Loraine Boettner "the world will be Christianized, and the return of Christ will occur at the close of a long period of righteousness and peace, commonly called the millennium. " [99] Postmillennialists commonly view the rapture of the Church as one and the same event as the second coming of Christ. According to them the great tribulation was already fulfilled in the Jewish-Roman War of 66–73 AD that involved the destruction of Jerusalem. [ citation needed] Authors who have expressed support for this view include the Puritan author of Pilgrim's Progress, John Bunyan, Jonathan Edwards and Charles Finney. Amillennialism [ edit] Amillennialists view the millennial rule of Christ as the current, but indefinite period that began with the foundation of the church and that will end with the Second Coming—a period where Christ already reigns with his saints through the Eucharist and his church. They view the life of the church as Christ's kingdom already established (inaugurated on the day of the Pentecost described in the first chapter of Acts), but not to be made complete until his second coming. This framework precludes a literal interpretation of the thousand-year period mentioned in chapter twenty of Revelation, viewing the number "thousand" as numerologically symbolic and pertaining to the current age of the church. Amillennialists generally do not use "rapture" as a theological term, but they do view a similar event coinciding with the second coming—primarily as a mystical gathering with Christ. To amillennialists the final days already began on the day of the Pentecost, but that the great tribulation will occur during the final phase or conclusion of the millennium, with Christ then returning as the alpha and omega at the end of time. Unlike premillennialists who predict the millennium as a literal thousand-year reign by Christ after his return, amillennialists emphasize the continuity and permanency of his reign throughout all periods of the New Covenant, past, present and future. They do not regard mentions of Jerusalem in the chapter twenty-one of Revelation as pertaining to the present geographical city, but to a future new Jerusalem or "new heaven and new earth", for which the church through the twelve apostles (representing of the twelve tribes of Israel) currently lays the foundation in the messianic kingdom already present. Unlike certain premillennial dispensationalists, they do not view the rebuilding of the temple of Jerusalem as either necessary or legitimate, because the practice of animal sacrifices has now been fulfilled in the life of the church through Christ's ultimate sacrifice on the cross. Authors who have expressed support for the amillenialist view include St. Augustine. [100] The amillennialist viewpoint is the position held by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Anglican churches, as well as mainline Protestant bodies, such as Lutherans, Methodists, Presbyterians and many Reformed congregations. [101] Date [ edit] Since the origin of the concept, some believers have made predictions regarding the date of the event. Any individual or religious group that has dogmatically predicted the day of the rapture, a practise referred to as "date setting", has been thoroughly embarrassed and discredited, as the predicted date of fulfillment has invariably come and gone without event. [102] Failed predictions [ edit] Some predictions of the date of the second Coming of Jesus (which may or may not refer to the rapture) include the following: 1844: William Miller predicted that Christ would return between March 21, 1843 and March 21, 1844, then revised his prediction, claiming to have miscalculated the Bible, to October 22, 1844. The realization that the predictions were incorrect resulted in the Great Disappointment. Miller's theology gave rise to the Advent movement. The Baha'is believe that Christ did return as Miller predicted in 1844, with the advent of the Báb, and numerous Miller-like prophetic predictions from many religions are given in William Sears ' book, Thief in The Night. [103] 1914, [104] 1918, [105] and 1925: [106] Various dates predicted for the Second Coming of Jesus by the Jehovah's Witnesses. Some predictions of the date of the rapture include the following: 1978: Chuck Smith predicted that Jesus would probably return by 1981. [107] 1988: Edgar C. Whisenant published a book called "88 Reasons Why the Rapture Will Be in 1988". [108] 1994: Radio evangelist Harold Camping predicted September 6, 1994. [109] 2011: Harold Camping 's revised prediction put May 21, 2011 as the date of the rapture. [110] [111] After this date passed without apparent incident, Camping made a radio broadcast stating that a non-visible "spiritual judgement" had indeed taken place, and that the physical rapture would occur on October 21, 2011. On that date, according to Camping, the "whole world will be destroyed. " [112] 2017 September 23: Christian numerologist David Meade motivated this date with astrological theories. [113] See also [ edit] Bible prophecy Covenantalism Eschatology of Jehovah's Witnesses Number of the beast Unfulfilled Christian religious predictions References [ edit] ^ Benware, Paul N. (2006). Understanding End Times Prophecy: A Comprehensive Approach. Chicago: Moody. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-8024-9079-7. ^ 1 Thessalonians 4:17 ^ Cf. Michael D. Guinan, "Raptured or Not? A Catholic Understanding", Catholic Update, October 2005, ("For many American fundamentalist Christians, the rapture forms part of the scenario of events that will happen at the end of the world.... [T]he more common view is [the pre-tribulation view]. ") (emphasis added); ( American Anglican commentary), Comment of Jon Edwards ("[T]he word 'rapture' can be found before 1830. But before 1830 it always referred to a POST-TRIB rapture.... "). ^ Michael D. Guinan, "Raptured or Not? A Catholic Understanding", Catholic Update, October 2005, (According to Guinan, the word "rapture" is used in different ways: "Spiritual writers have used it for mystical union with God, or our final sharing in God’s heavenly life". However, for many American fundamentalist Christians, "the Rapture forms part of the scenario of events that will happen at the end of the world.... [T]he more common view is [the pre-tribulation view]". ) "It was over 30 years ago that a student in my Scripture class asked me that question. Drawing on all my years of Catholic education (kindergarten through the seminary and doctoral studies), I replied, 'The what? ' I had never heard of it. "). Guinan, "Raptured or Not? A Catholic Understanding", Catholic Update, October 2005. ^ Hays, J. Daniel; Duvall, J. Scott; Pate, C. Marvin (2009-05-26). Dictionary of Biblical Prophecy and End Times. Zondervan. pp. 692–. ISBN 9780310571049. Retrieved 26 December 2014. ^ Mills, Watson E. ; Bullard, Roger Aubrey (1990). Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. pp. 736–. ISBN 9780865543737. Retrieved 26 December 2014. ^ McKim, Donald K (2014-04-09). The Westminster Dictionary of Theological Terms, Second Edition: Revised and Expanded. Presbyterian Publishing Corporation. pp. 261–. ISBN 9781611643862. Retrieved 26 December 2014. ^ Chopra, editor, Ramesh (2005). Encyclopaedic dictionary of religion: Q-Z. Delhi: Isha Books. p. 638. ISBN 81-8205-203-3. Retrieved 6 April 2015. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list ( link) ^ Ice, Thomas. "Myths of the Origin of Pretribulationism (Part 1)". Pre-Trib Research Center. Retrieved December 6, 2019. ^ Where does the "Rapture" fit into United Methodist beliefs? ^ Michael D. Guinan, "Raptured or Not? A Catholic Understanding", Catholic Update, October 2005,. Cf. "Catechism of the Catholic Church - The Profession of Faith". Vatican Retrieved 2011-10-21. ^ Anthony M. Coniaris, "The Rapture: Why the Orthodox don't preach it, " Light & Life Publishing, Life Line, September 12, 2005, Volume 2, Issue 3, available at accessed January 27, 2012. ^ Brian M. Schwertley, "Is the Pretribulation Rapture Biblical? ", Reformed Online,, last accessed January 27, 2012. ^ See notes above for specific denominations (Catechism - Catholic, Light & Life Newsletter - Orthodox, Lutheran Witness - Lutheran, Reformed Online - Reformed). ^ [1] c. 1600, "act of carrying off, " from rapture, from M. L. raptura "seizure, rape, kidnapping, " from L. raptus "a carrying off" (see rapt). Originally of women and cognate with rape. ^ ἁρπάζω is root of strongs G726 and has the following meanings: (1) to seize, carry off by force; (2) to seize on, claim for one's self eagerly; (3) to snatch out or take away. ^ 1 Thessalonians 4:17. deinde nos qui vivimus qui relinquimur simul rapiemur cum illis in nubibus obviam Domino in aera et sic semper cum Domino erimus (Latin Vulgate). ^ Elwell, Walter A., ed. (2001-05-01) [1984]. Evangelical Dictionary of Theology (2nd ed. ). Baker Academic. p. 908. ISBN 9781441200303. Book preview ^ 1Thess 4:16 "Afterward we that lyuen, that ben left, schulen be rauyschid togidere with hem in cloudis, metinge Crist`in to the eir; and so euere more we schulen be with the Lord. " ^ Bishop's Bible 17 "Than we which lyue, which remaine, shalbe caught vp together with them in the cloudes, to meete the Lorde in the ayre: And so shall we euer be with the Lorde. " ^ NETBible., 2005. Retrieved 2012-02-06. ^ "About the Supposed Rapture". Omaha, Nebraska: Greek Orthodox Church of Greater Omaha. Archived from the original on 2014-04-02. Retrieved 23 January 2011. Rapture is a popular term among some Protestant sects for the raising of the faithful from the belief in rapture tends to be what is called 'pre-tribulation'. ^ Cozby, Dimitri (September 1998). "What is 'The Rapture'? ". Rollinsford, New Hampshire: Orthodox Research Institute. Retrieved 2015-03-22. ^ Smietana, Bob (April 26, 2016). "Pastors: The End of the World is Complicated". LifeWay Research. Retrieved December 12, 2019. ^ Dearing, Karen Lynn (2001). "A History of the Independent Bible Church". Ouachita Baptist University. p. 20. Retrieved December 12, 2019. ^ "Our Identity". Charis Fellowship. 2017. Retrieved December 12, 2019. ^ "The Rapture of the Church". Assemblies of God. August 4, 1979. Retrieved December 12, 2019. ^ Decker, Rodney J. (2004). "Religion—Dispensationalism". In Wishart, David J. (ed. Encyclopedia of the Great Plains. Lincoln, NE: Center for Great Plains Studies. p. 741. ISBN 0-8032-4787-7. ^ Thiessen, Henry C. (1979). Lectures in Systematic Theology. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans. pp. 355–356. ISBN 0-8028-3529-5. ^ McAvoy, Steven (December 12, 1995). "Some Problems with Posttribulationism". p. 16. Retrieved December 6, 2019. ^ Ice, Thomas D. (May 2009). "Myths of the Origin of Pretribulationism (Part 1)" (PDF). Liberty University Article Archives. p. 3. Retrieved December 11, 2019. ^ Benware, Paul N. pp. 215, 224. ISBN 978-0-8024-9079-7. ^ Lindsey, Hal (1989-06-01). The Road to Holocaust. Bantam Books. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-553-05724-9. ^ Keeley, Robin, ed. (November 1982). Eerdmans’ Handbook to Christian Belief. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. p. 415. ISBN 978-0-8028-3577-2. ^ Drum, Walter (1912-07-01). "Epistles to the Thessalonians". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York City: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 2010-12-12. ^ Wright, N. (2008-02-05). Surprised by Hope: Rethinking Heaven, the Resurrection, and the Mission of the Church. HarperOne. p. 133. ISBN 978-0061551826. When Paul speaks of 'meeting' the Lord 'in the air, ' the point is precisely not—as in the popular rapture theology—that the saved believers would then stay up in the air somewhere, The point is that, having gone out to meet their returning Lord, they will escort him royally into his domain, that is, back to the place they have come from. Even when we realize that this is highly charged metaphor, not literal description, the meaning is the same as in the parallel in Philippians 3:20. Being citizens of heaven, as the Philippians would know, doesn’t mean that one is expecting go back to the mother city but rather means that one is expecting the emperor to come from the mother city to give the colony its full dignity, to rescue it if need he, to subdue local enemies and put everything to rights. ^ Holding, James Patrick, ed. (2010-08-24). Defending the Resurrection. Xulon Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-1609576547. Foreword by Gary Habermas. ^ Bouma-Prediger, Steven (2010-04-01) [2001]. For the Beauty of the Earth: A Christian Vision for Creation Care. Engaging Culture (2nd ed. ISBN 978-0801036958.. ^ Elwell, Walter A., ed. p. 910. Book preview ^ Schaff, Philip (1976). History of the Christian Churches. Vol. 2: Ante-Nicene Christianity. Grand Rapids: WM. p. 614. ISBN 0-8028-8048-7. ^ of Caesarea, Eusebius (313). The History of the Church. pp. Book 3:39:11-13. ^ Schaff, Philip (1976). p. 482. ISBN 0-8028-8048-7. ^ Radmacher, Earl. "The Nature and Result of Literal Interpretation". Retrieved December 5, 2019. ^ Couch, Mal (2000). An Introduction to Classical Evangelical Hermeneutics: A Guide to the History and Practice of Biblical Interpretation. Grand Rapids: Kregel. pp. 97–98. ISBN 978-0-8254-2367-3. ^ Couch, Mal (2000). p. 99. ISBN 978-0-8254-2367-3. ^ Schaff, Philip (1976). History of the Christian Church. pp. 618–620. ISBN 0-8028-8048-7. ^ Zuck, Roy B. (1991). Basic Bible Interpretation: A Practical Guide to Discovering Bible Truth. Colorado Springs, CO: David C. Cook. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-7814-3877-3. ^ Schaff, Philip (1976). p. 815. ISBN 0-8028-8048-7. ^ Couch, Mal (1996). Dictionary of Premillennial Theology. p. 258. ISBN 0-8254-2410-0. ^ Larsen, David L. "Some Key Issues in the History of Premillennialism" (PDF). p. 5. Retrieved December 11, 2019. ^ Negru, Catalin (2018). A History of the Apocalypse. Raleigh, NC: Catalin Negru. p. 186. ISBN 978-1-387-91116-5. ^ Kyle, Richard G. (May 1998). The Last Days Are Here Again: A History of the End Times. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Books. pp. 78–79. ISBN 978-0-8010-5809-7. ^ Boyer, Paul (September 1992). When Time Shall Be No More: Prophecy Belief in Modern American Culture. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. 75. ISBN 978-0-674-95128-0. ^ William Watson (April 2015). Dispensationalism Before Darby: Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century English Apocalypticism (Lampion Press, 2015), ch. 7. ^ Doddridge, Philip (March 9, 1738). Practical Reflections on the Character and Translation of Enoch (sermon). Northampton: Printed by W. Dicey and sold by... R. Hett... London, J. Smith in Daventry, Caleb Ratten in Harborough, J. Ratten in Coventry, J. Cook in Uppingham, Tho. Warren in Birmingham, and Matt. Dagnall in Aylesbury. OCLC 30557054. Retrieved 2015-03-13. ^ Gill, John (1748). An Exposition of the Revelation of St. John the Divine. London: Printed for John Ward. OCLC 49243272. Retrieved 17 May 2011. ^ Henry, Matthew (1828). An Exposition of the Old and New Testament. Volume 6. Philadelphia: Edward Barrington & George D. Haswell. 617. At, or immediately before, this rapture into the clouds, those who are alive will undergo a mighty change, that will be equivalent to dying. ^ Tregelles, Samuel Prideaux (1864). The Hope of Christ's Second Coming: How is it Taught in Scripture? and Why?. London: Houlston and Wright. Reprint: Tregelles, Samuel Prideaux (2006-04-01). The Hope of Christ's Second Coming. Milesburg, PA: Strong Tower Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9772883-0-4. ^ Oliphant, Margaret (1862). The life of Edward Irving, minister of the National Scotch Church, London. First volume. London: Hurst and Blackett. pp. 220–223. Retrieved 2015-03-17. ^ Miller, Edward (1878). The history and doctrines of Irvingism. Vol II. London: C. Kegan Paul & Co. p. 8. Retrieved 2015-03-16. ^ The Shepherd of Hermas. Translated by Lightfoot, J. Pantionos Classics. 1891. pp. 25–28. ISBN 978-1976092169. ^ Gunn, David (September 22, 2015). "Is the Pre-Trib Rapture a Recent Invention? ". Baptist Bulletin. September/October 2015: 17–19. ^ Cf. Ian S. Markham, "John Darby", The Student's Companion to the Theologians, p. 263-64 (Wiley-Blackwell, 2013) ("[Darby] simultaneously created a theology that holds the popular imagination and was popularized very effectively in the margins of the Schofield Bible. "),. ^ Carl E. Olson, "Five Myths About the Rapture, " Crisis p. 28-33 (Morley Publishing Group, 2003) ("LaHaye declares, in Rapture Under Attack, that “virtually all Christians who take the Bible literally expect to be raptured before the Lord comes in power to this earth. ” This would have been news to Christians — both Catholic and Protestant — living prior to the 18th century, since the concept of a pretribulation rapture was unheard of prior to that time. Vague notions had been considered by the Puritan preachers Increase (1639-1723) and Cotton Mather (1663-1728), and the late 18th-century Baptist minister Morgan Edwards, but it was John Nelson Darby who solidified the belief in the 1830s and placed it into a larger theological framework. Reprinted at. ^ Blaising, Craig A. ; Bock, Darrell L. (November 1993). Progressive Dispensationalism. Wheaton, IL: Bridgepoint Books. ISBN 9781441205124. ^ The Scofield Bible: Its History and Impact on the Evangelical Church, Magnum & Sweetnam. Pages 188-195, 218. ^ Lindsey, Hal (1983-07-01). The Rapture: Truth or Consequences. 25. ISBN 978-0553014112. ^ Erickson, Millard J. (1977). Contemporary Options in Eschatology: A Study of the Millennium. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House. 125. ISBN 0-8010-3262-8. ^ Bray, John L (1982). The origin of the pre-tribulation rapture teaching. Lakeland, Florida: John L. Bray Ministry. pp. 24–25. ^ Blaising, Craig A. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-56476-138-5. ^ Blackstone, William E. (1908) [1878]. Jesus is coming (Third ed. Fleming H. Revell Company. OCLC 951778. ^ Scofield, C. I., ed. (1967) [1909]. Scofield Reference Bible. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-527802-6. ^ Ephraem the Syrian, JoshuaNet, 27 Jul. 2010. & © 1995 Grant R. Jeffrey, Final Warning, published by Frontier Research Publications, Inc., Box 120, Station "U", Toronto, Ontario M8Z 5M4. ^ Warner, Tim (2001). "Pseudo-Pseudo-Ephraem". The Last Trumpet. Tampa, Florida: Post-Trib Research Center. Archived from the original on 2005-02-18. ^ See Apocalypse of Pseudo-Ephraem for a detailed explanation of the text and the controversy. ^ Missler, Chuck (June 1995). "Byzantine Text Discovery: Ephraem the Syrian". Coeur d'Alene, Idaho: Koinonia House. Retrieved 2015-03-22. For all the saints and Elect of God are gathered, prior to the tribulation that is to come, and are taken to the Lord lest they see the confusion that is to overwhelm the world because of our sins. ^ Hommel, Jason. "A Sermon by Pseudo-Ephraem". Jason Hommel's Bible Prophecy Study on the Pre Tribulation Rapture. Grass Valley, California. For all the saints and elect of God are gathered, prior to the tribulation that is to come, and are taken to the Lord lest they see the confusion that is to overwhelm the world because of our sins. ^ Marotta, Frank (1995). Morgan Edwards: An Eighteenth Century Pretribulationist. Jackson Township, New Jersey: Present Truth Publishers. ISBN 978-0-9640037-8-1. OCLC 36897344. ^ Hommel, Jason. "The Jesuits and the Rapture: Francisco Ribera & Emmanuel Lacunza". Archived from the original on 9 December 2010. Retrieved 22 January 2011. ^ Hommel, Jason. "Margaret MacDonald's Vision". Archived from the original on 15 January 2003. Retrieved 14 November 2016. Quotes the account in The Restoration of Apostles and Prophets In the Catholic Apostolic Church (1861). ^ Wilkinson, Paul Richard (1 December 2008). "Appendix: Margaret McDonald's Utterances". For Zion's Sake: Christian Zionism and the Role of John Nelson Darby. Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 262–263. ISBN 1556358075. A more complete version, combining the text in Norton's Memoirs and that in The Restoration of Apostles and Prophets In the Catholic Apostolic Church (1861), all cited secondary from Macpherson, The Incredible Coverup. ^ "Left Behind Series - Official Website of the Book Series". Tyndale House. Retrieved 2015-03-23. ^ Erickson, Millard J. 164. ISBN 0-8010-3262-8. ^ Hoekema, Anthony A. (1994-09-06) [1979]. The Bible and the Future (revised ed. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans. ISBN 0-85364-624-4. ^ "Welcome to the Pre-Wrath Consortium". Pre-Wrath Consortium. Archived from the original on 2004-10-20. ^ Rosenthal, Marvin J. (1990-06-22). The Pre-Wrath Rapture of the Church. Thomas Nelson. ISBN 978-0840731609. ^ Marvin Rosenthal, author of The Prewrath Rapture of the Church, is a proponent for the prewrath rapture view. His belief is founded on the work of Robert D. Van Kampen (1938–1999); his books The Sign, The Rapture Question Answered and The Fourth Reich detail his pre-wrath rapture doctrine. ^ LaHaye, Tim; Ice, Thomas (August 2001). Charting the End Times: A Visual Guide to Understanding Bible Prophecy. Tim LaHaye Prophecy Library. Harvest House. ISBN 978-0736901383. ^ "Overview of the Partial Rapture Theory" (PDF). Valley Bible Church Theology Studies. Lancaster, California. Retrieved 2015-04-01. ^ White, J. Jr. (2008-02-28). The Partial Rapture "Theory" Explained: Escaping The Coming Storm. ISBN 9781604776843. ^ David, Ira E. (1935-11-15). "Translation: When Does It Occur? ". The Dawn: 358. ^ Walvoord, John F. (1979-08-12) [1957]. The Rapture Question (Revised and enlarged ed. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-310-34151-2. ^ Erickson, Millard J. (1998-12-01) [1977]. A Basic Guide to Eschatology: Making Sense of the Millennium (revised ed. p. 152. ISBN 0-8010-5836-8. Originally published in 1977 under the title Contemporary Options in Eschatology: A Study of the Millennium. ^ Ladd, George Eldon (1990-03-20) [1956]. The Blessed Hope: A Biblical Study of the Second Advent and the Rapture. ISBN 978-0802811110. ^ Gundry, Robert H. (1999-10-14) [1973]. The Church and the Tribulation: A Biblical Examination of Posttribulationism. ISBN 978-0310254010. ^ Boettner, Loraine (1984). The millennium ([Rev. ed]. ed. [Phillipsburg, N. ]: Presbyterian and Reformed Pub. Co. ISBN 978-0875521138. ^ "The Rapture". Retrieved 2017-09-19. ^ Garrison, J. Christopher (2014). The Judaism of Jesus: The Messiah's Redemption of the Jews. Bloomington, Indiana: WestBowPress. p. 264. ISBN 978-1-4908-2974-6. ^ Nelson, Chris (2011-05-18). "A Brief History of the Apocalypse". Retrieved 2015-04-01. ^ Sears, William (1961-06-01). Thief in the Night: Or, The Strange Case of the Missing Millennium. Welwyn, England: George Ronald Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-0853980087. ^ Barbour, Nelson H. (1877). Three Worlds, and the Harvest of This World (PDF). Rochester, New York: Nelson H. Barbour and Charles Taze Russell. OCLC 41016956. Retrieved 2015-04-03. (See also: Wikipedia's article on Three Worlds (book)) as cited by: Penton, M. James (1997-08-09) [1985]. Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses (2nd ed. University of Toronto Press. pp. 21–22. ISBN 978-0802079732. ^ The Finished Mystery, 1917, p. 485, 258, as cited by Raymond Franz, Crisis of Conscience, pages 206-211. ^ The Way to Paradise booklet, Watch Tower Society, 1924, as cited by Raymond Franz, Crisis of Conscience, pages 230–232. ^ Smith, Chuck (1978-01-01). End Times: A Report on Future Survival. Costa Mesa, California: Maranatha House Publishers. p. 17. ISBN 978-0893370114. ^ "88 Reasons Why the Rapture Will Be in 1988". ^ Nelson, Chris (18 June 2002). "A Brief History of the Apocalypse; 1971–1997: Millennial Madness". Retrieved 23 June 2007. ^ "We are Almost There". Archived from the original on 12 June 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2008. ^ Ravitz, Jessica (2011-03-06). "Road trip to the end of the world". CNN. Retrieved 2011-03-06. ^ LAist Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine, 24 May 2011. ^ Kettley, Sebastian (2017-09-23). "End of the world 2017: Why American Christians are getting VERY worried about September 23".. Retrieved 2017-11-06. External links [ edit] Media related to Prophecy of the Rapture at Wikimedia Commons.

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